Kinds of Grapes

Agriculture and agricultural production is an indispensable sector for Türkiye because it plays an important role in Turkish economy due to its share within GNP in our country and since it presents commodity and service to other economic sectors and it relates to half of the public in terms of employment and entire public in terms of its consumption aspect.

In terms of viniculture and winemaking, however, Türkiye locates on the most productive climate zone of the world for viniculture and among the most important countries and is in the position of the fifth largest viniculture country of the world. Our country has a very old and rooted viniculture and has become an important grape manufacturer for many years. Furthermore, very little part of the grapes produced is used in winemaking. Many of the grapes are consumed for table, are dried and used in production of grape molasses and fruit pulp. Based on the estimations made, vine has been started to be grown nearly 7-8 thousand years before in the Anatolian lands. Approximately 1200 kinds of grape are estimated to be produced in Türkiye. Only 34 of these ranges are for wine. Foreign grapes are also grown on the Anatolian lands in addition to many kinds of local grape. 22 of 34 kinds of grapes for wine are local and 12 of them are foreign grapes. Grapes are used as either monocepage (wine produced from a single kind of grape) or kupage (blend) in wine production. Main grapes and regions where they are grown in our country are as follows;

Marmara Region:

Tekirdağ; Papazkarası, Semillion, Cinsault, Gamay, Yapıncak, Adakarası
Çanakkale; Karasakız
Bilecik; Beylerce
Adapazarı; Sauvignon Blanc

Aegean region:

Manisa; Sultaniye
İzmir; Misket, Carignan, Alicante Bouchet
Denizli; Sultaniye, Çalkarası, Kalecik Karası, Shiraz

Mediterranean Region:

Antalya; Shiraz

Central Anatolia Region:

Ankara; Hasandede, Kalecik Karası
Çankırı; Hasandede
Kırıkkale; Kalecik Karası, Papazkarası
Kırşehir; Kalecik Karası
Nevşehir; Emir
Kayseri; Emir

Black Sea Region:

Tokat; Narince Çorum; Hasandede Amasya; Narince

Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia Region:

Malatya; Öküzgözü
Elazığ; Öküzgözü, Boğazkere
Diyarbakır; Öküzgözü, Boğazkere
Gaziantep; Öküzgözü, Horoz Karası, Sergi Karası
Kilis; Dökülgen, Rumi

Examples from kinds of grape used most commonly

Emir: Emir which is grown in Nevsehir and Nigde district a sharp pointed white grape with green yellow grains, thick peel and meaty structure in the grain. Period of harvest is end of September. It provides generally very light yellow and nice wines with high acidity and unnoticeable flavors. Emir has green-weighted fruit aroma and is in mineral shades and is also used in production of sparkling wine.

Narince: A kind of grape grown in Tokat. Narince grape that we assume it to take its name from its structure is a fine white grape. Although it has a very thin peel, it is durable in the course of transport. Narince produces white wines with noticeable aromas, which are middle bodied and may be easily oxidized.

Kalecik Karası: A kind of grape of the best quality for wine grown in the town Kalecik of Ankara. Color of Kalecik Karasi is dark red/black and its peels are thick and its meat is watery. It produces dark red colored, weak fruit aromatic, middle bodied wines with alcohol of 12-14% and high acid.

Okuzgozu(ox-eye daisy): A grape with big grain and in dark black color. It is used as table and wine grape for many thousands of years. Okuzgozu produces vermeil, middle bodied, nice and balanced wines with high acid and alcohol in between 12.5 and 13.5% in general.

Bogazkere: It is grown in Diyarbakir. Bogazkere has middle sized, round and thick peeled grains. It produces a balanced blended wine of high quality with Okuzgozu. It produces dark vermeil, full bodied wines with clear tannin and low acid.

Çalkarasi: A common kind grown in Denizli and all of its towns, mainly Cal. When Calkarasi is blended with foreign grape kinds, it increases their quality. Wines made from Calkarasi have 12-13% alcohol.

Kinds of foreign grapes for quality wine

Sauvignon Blanc: A kind of foreign quality grapes commonly grown in Marmara and Aegean Regions in Türkiye. Its grains are small- and middle-sized and its juice is sweet and aromatic. It produces wines with high acidity.

Chardonnay: Productivity may range in between 500-1000 kg per decare depending on soil characteristic of the area where it is grown. Bunches of the kind are small cylindrical and close-grained. Its oval-like grains are small, in amber color, watery and meaty, thin peeled, slightly aromatic and it is a kind of grape which matures early.

Traminer: A kind of grape, which is pinky and which matures late with high percentage of sugar. Traminer which contains very high percentage of sugar is weak in terms of acid. Its aroma smells like rose, is permanent and very intensive.

Rulander: Its grains are long, middle-sized and it has compact bunches. It is grey, reddish yellow. It likes hot soils, quality of wines increases more in dry years without rain in summer months. It has a special bouquet of very high quality.

Pinot Noir: An important kind of Bourgogne and Champagne regions of France. It has bunches with cylindrical, small and compact, dark blue, red, slightly smoky. Its wines contain high alcohol. It is a superior grape with a very intensive and delightful aroma. Pinot Noir which matures early is very responsive to diseases.

Cabernet Sauvignon: It is a kind of grape which grows better in mild climates and it is Bordeaux-origin. Its bunches are small or middle sized, cylindrical winged and its grains are small, round, purplish black, hard with a relatively thick peel and sour taste. Dark red vermeil wines of high quality are produced. Its young wines are sour with slightly grass smell. It gains a bouquet providing the sense of raspberry and bilberry with aging.

Cabernet Franc: Its bunches are middle-sized and cylindrical. Its grains are round, thick peeled and in a purplish color. It may be blended with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.

Merlot: Its bunches and grains are small, round and it is dark red with little juice. Its wine is light or dark vermeil and has a soft character. It is generally blended with Cabernet Sauvignon.

Shiraz: Its bunches are middle sized and it is cylindrical and sometimes winged with frequent grains. Bunch stalk is lignified fast and its grains are black, egg-like, small, watery and meaty.