Absence:

Absence of fruit flavors in the wine, insensible. The wine may not improve itself when acid, tannin and oak are dominated over fruit flavors. Wines in such a case may be called as weak.

Acetic Acid:

All wines contain acetic acid. Acid which is normally contained in between 0.3% and 0.6% is not noticed in taste or smell. When acetic acid percentage in wines approaches to 1%, taste and vinegar smell are smelled. Acetic acid may improve taste of the wine when it is contained at a low level, if this taste dominates the wine, it is considered as a deficiency.

Acid:

Acid is necessary for the wine, ensures its preservation, forms its refreshing effect, facilitates drinking, forms its taste and protects it for a long time. Taste and balance of the wine is measured by its acidity, tannin, fruitiness and alcohol level. The more these 4 factors are harmonized each other, the more the wine is balanced. Mainly 4 different acids are contained in the wine. They are tartaric, malic, lactic and citric acids. Acid protects crispness and long life of wine in case of white wine. In case of red wine, it ensures long life of the color. Equivalent of the word in TDK Dictionary: Hydrogenous composite forming salt by taking mineral instead of hydrogen in its composite.

Acidic:

Wines with high acid percentage. Taste left by acid on the palate; it is used when sharpness or bitterness is much.

Acidity:

A substance which is generally derived from tartaric acid (a natural acid contained in grapes) and forming 0.5 -0.7% of the wine.

Aggressive:

A strong taste or tissue of the wine at an unsatisfactory level in case of high level of tannin and acid.

Albarino:

Grape for white wine grown on the northeast of Spain, in Galicia region. Its peel is thick and little fluid. Its wine contain high alcohol and high and strong acid generally. These wines which are aromatic is suitable with marzipan and sea products and should be drunken young.

Alcohol:

Volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a chemical formula of C2H5OH. It is considered as discovered by the Arabian people and its name being passed from the Arabian word al-kuhl to other languages. Alcohol contained in wines is derived through natural fermentation of grape juice. Alcohol ratio of wine is in between 7% and 14% in general.

Aleatico:

A kind of grape which is red member of muscatel family. It is used in table wine and sweet wine production. It is popular in Italy.

Alicante Bouschet:

A kind of grape developed by Henri Bouschet in France at the end of 1880s. It is the only6 grape type having red meat among red grapes. Its productivity is high, acidity is little but it is preferred due to its color. It has become a kind of grape most commonly grown in France for a long time.

Aligote:

White wine grape of Bourgogne region in France. This grape is popular especially in the Eastern Europe. Its wine is middle bodied, sharp, flavored and neat in general.

American Oak:

Rival of French Oak in barrel production. Since it adds cedar and vanilla aromas into the wine, it may be said that this barrel contributes a different character in the wine.

Ampelography:

A scientific discipline which deals with classification and definition of vines. It is taught as a course in agriculture faculties.

AOC (Appellation D'Origine Controlee):

Controlled Origin Denomination. AOC which is production-audit system of the French have been applied in France since 1935. In the system formed on basis of wine production regions, growing places of grapes, kinds used, productivity, alcohol ratio, methods used in wine production have been regulated by the codes and bylaws.

Aperitif:

Beverage served prior to the meal helps in creating appetizer effect in digestive system. Vermouth type beverages are aperitif.

Appellation:

Denomination. Denomination, definition of wines, grapes (and some other foodstuff) by the name of place they are grown. Although meaning of the word is denomination, since it is a term directly associated with production regions, it is used as (wine) production region.

Aroma:

Smells varying depending on grapes used in wine, fermentation of wine, barrel in which the wine is waited and wines ageing.

Aromatic:

Kinds of wine with a certain smell. Muscatel wines are the most well-known example. Aromatic wines have fruity and floral smells in general.

Aromatized:

Wine aromatized with such substances added later on instead of grape and natural means in production.

Astringency:

Response of the mouth to neat wines with high tannin.

Astringent:

Feature of drying mouth in case of certain wines

Attack:

Initial effect of the wine in the taste test during degustation. Wine is examined in three categories under the following titles: Weak-Middle-Strong; Balanced-Unbalanced; Tannin-Acidity-Alcohol-Fruit.

Auslese:

A German word meaning Selected; it means selected harvest in the German literature. They are the highest quality German white wines produced from matured grapes selected according to their tastes.

Austere:

It is used in introduction of strong, high acidic wines deprived of depth. Some young wines may become soft when they are aged. Sometimes, however, it is used when defining grape kinds grown in cold climates or picked before harvest time.