Cabernet Franc:

A French black grape kind. It is used in Bordeaux wines. Cabernet Franc which shows major similarities with Cabernet Sauvignon has remained under the shadow of Sauvignon which is grown more. Cabernet Franc, a wine which is light colored and contains tannin is light-middle bodied and has fruitier flavor than Cabernet Sauvignon. It is grown on the southwest of France and it is also known on the north east of Italy. It is grown increasingly more in the North America.

Cabernet Sauvignon:

The most famous French grape for red wine throughout the world used in Bordeaux Wines, especially grown in Entre-Deux-Mers between the rivers Gironda and Dordogne. It is much preferred due to its good taste, balanced form, complexity, long-term ageing and easy cultivation. It grows in warm climate and provides good color. Cabernet Sauvignon, which grows in a large area today, is considered as one of the significant grape kinds of the world. Its production has reached enormous dimensions since 1980s. Cabernet Sauvignon is grown in many countries other than France including Russia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Trkiye, Cyprus, Israel and its second home is the Northern California. It has also an important place in New Zealands wine industry. Cabernet Sauvignon may be grown in many places throughout the world and becomes more popular each passing day.

Cahors:

Wine region located on the southwest of France. It is known with its closeness to Bordeaux and red wines made from Malbec grapes.

Calkarasi:

A kind of local grape grown in Denizli Area and generally used in rose wine production. It is countryman of the famous Artist Ibrahim Calli. It takes its name from Cal town.

Campaign:

Sparkling wine found on the northeast 70 mil from Paris which takes its name from the place where it is found, which prepared by traditional methods and made only from Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and/or Pinot Meunier grapes.

Capsule:

A metal or plastic guard on the cork or neck of the bottle. The capsule prevents the cork from being dried and bottle from taking air.

Carbonic Maceration:

A fermentation technique used in certain red wines consumed early in particular including Beaujolais. Fermentation occurs under intensive carbon dioxide in such wines produced by this technique.

Carignan:

Black grape kind which matures late and contains high acid and tannin. It is also qualified as the disaster of the European wine industry. It has been preferred by manufacturers thanks to its high productivity, it has been mixed with other grapes. It has been grown commonly in France in 1960s, become the grape mostly grown in the country. The European Union has tried to reduce its plantation in 80s and 90s, manufacturers have been granted material support for not planting this grape. Nevertheless, its production could not be reduced to the desired level. It has no significant characteristics other than its high productivity.

Castello:

An Italian word meaning castle, manor.

Cava:

Spanish sparkling wines made by the French campaign method. Original of the word Cava comes from Catalonia and means tinder.

Cedar:

Cedar aroma is found in Cabernet Sauvignon bouquet especially relaxed in oak.

Cellar:

Wine cellar. Wines are kept in barrel or bottles for the purpose of maturing, aging or consuming. Locations to be used as wine cellar must be humid at the rate of 70-90%, colder from 16 degree, not receiving direct sunlight.

Cepage:

Kind of the grape from which wine is made.

Chablis:

A city located on the north of Bourgogne and known as Bourgognes Door and neat white wine which is made from Chardonnay grapes and may be aged. It is one of two beverages frequently drunken by aristocrats in Anna Karenina, famous work of Tolstoy. The other is campaign.

Chai:

A term used for the spaces for wine storage and ageing built above ground in France. These spaces are mostly seen in Bordeaux.

Chambourcin:

A hybrid red wine grape developed from the French red grapes. It is used in production of good degree vin de pays which is dark colored and dominated by aromatic smells contrary to many hybrid types.

Chancellor:

A red grape which is French-American hybrid and mostly grown in Canada and on the east of US.

Chaptalization:

Addition of sugar to fermented wine at the beginning of fermentation process in order to increase alcohol level. This process does not sweeten the wine, instead sugar turns into alcohol. It is forbidden in some places of the world.

Charbono:

The name given to Bonarda grape in California. It is used in red wine production.

Chardonnay:

The most popular one of white wine grapes. Its origin and the place where it is produced best is Bourgogne. It is one of the three grape kinds used in campaign production. Apple and green apple aromas are classic. Some American and Australian Chardonnays contain pineapples aroma as well.

Charmat:

In production of sparkling wine, method involving the processes of keeping wine in steel tanks and bottling by pressure. It is mostly used in production of cheap sparkling wines. It was developed by the French person Eugene Charmat in 1910.

Chateau Margaux:

The most famous castle of France, maybe of the world. It has been built in the 15th century. Wine grape was started to be grown in the castle in 1750. 75% Cabernet Sauvignon, 20% Merlot, 5% Petit Verdot and Cabernet Franc grapes are used in its world-famous red wines.

Chateau:

Together with its known meaning, it defines the properties in which wine is produced in France.

Chateauneuf-du-Pape:

A city located on the south of France, slightly on the north of Avignon, wine production area and complex, full bodied, neat red wine made by blending 13 different grape kinds. It is proud of its origin based on Papa lived on the 14th century. The word means New Castle of Papa.

Chenin Blanc:

Flexible, white French grape used in production of neat, light, sweet white wines. Famous author Rabelais has wrote many things about these wines.

Chianti:

Fruity, classic, neat red wine made from the grapes grown in Toscana, Sangiovese and other middle-northern Italian cities. The wine which is labeled as Chianti Classico is made from the grapes grown in the center of Chianti district, produced in certain areas and bottled in the place where grape is grown.

Chile:

It is one of most important actors of the World wine market today, although it has met with winemaking very late according to the Old World. Winemaking and viniculture have started by the efforts of Spanish Missionaries after middle of the 16th century in Chile. Even though its climate and geography are convenient, no grapes were grown up to middle of the 18th century other than a few kinds grown by the missionaries. Then, traditional European grapes have been started to be grown as well. Chance of this country was being far away the phylloxera disease which greatly damaged the vineyards throughout the world as from the 18th century. A part of the oldest vineyards of the world where grapes are grown interruptedly is in Chile despite being relatively new in winemaking.

Cigar box:

The smell which is generally felt in classic Mdoc Cabernet Sauvignon. It is evaluated under the title Forest Odors in aroma and bouquet control in the course of degustation. It is similar to smell of cedar. Cigar boxes are made from cedar tree.

Cinsault Cinsaut:

One of the oldest red wine grapes of the South France. It is commonly produced in Provence and Languedoc. It is mostly produced in Thrace in Trkiye. It has red fruit aromas. It is used in blend of Tilsim Kirmizi.

Clairet:

Old term used by the British for Red Bordeaux. Meaning of the word is blood. Wines made from these grapes which are dark rose should be drunk as very young.

Classico:

The name given to the wines of vineyards defined as classic according to the Italian classification.

Clean:

It shows absence of any noticeable fault in aroma, appearance and taste of the wine. It does not express quality on its own.

Clos:

A French word meaning close, closed. It is used in the meaning of closed area, closed vineyard. It is an old term mostly used for Bourgogne wines. Around of these vineyards were covered by walls. Name of certain wines starts with the word Clos due to the vineyard where they are produced.

Closed:

It is used for young, undeveloped wines which cannot display their character easily and remain withdrawn in aroma or taste. It is expected to develop when it is aged.

Collage:

Decantation process involving legal addition of organic substances instead of waiting self-clarification of the wine after fermentation. It is also called as thinning or decantation.

Complex:

The term used in defining balance and finish in degustation. It is antonymous of simplicity.

Constantia:

Wine with intensive aromatic smell produced in Constantia Valley located in the Cape Town, South Africa. It was firstly produced in the farm established by the first governor of Cape Town. This wine which is known with its legendary taste and favored by aristocrats in the 18th 19th centuries is said to be favorite of the politicians like Napoleon, Bismarck. This wine is also mentioned in novels of Dickens and Jane Austin. Nelson Mandela is also addicted to this wine today.

Cork:

It is the traditional bottle stopper produced from peels of mushroom trees and they are the best way to seal the bottle. It is/must be obtained from a tree name in Botanic of which is Quercus Suber and which is mostly grown in Portugal.

Corsica:

The French island located in the Mediterranean. It is one of the main grape regions of France. Grape is grown on its eastern and western coasts.

Cortese:

The grape which is grown in Piemonte and Lombardy regions of Italy and from which light bodied, sharp, balanced white wines are produced. It is famous with the wine Gavi produced in Piemonte.

Cote Rotie:

Production area located on the north of Rhone Valley and full bodied, red wine with vanilla, raspberry and spice aromas produced there. It is produced from Syrah and Viognier grapes.

Coteaux du Languedoc:

Wine production area on the southern coasts of France. Its first grape in France is known to be produced there by the Greek. It is famous for its popular, neat red wines produced upon blending various kinds like Grenache, Syrah, Cinsault.

Cotes du Rhone:

Rhon Valley. Main area of 200 kilometers lying from the south of Lyon to the south of Avignon. It is the general name of the production area lying along Rhone river.

Coupage:

Blending wines made from different grapes before bottling. Grapes and their amounts to be blended are determined by traditional practices and laws in some laws.

Crianza:

Crianza, a Spanish name, is an official term used for defining both ageing technique of wine and young wines matured in wooden barrels. The wines referred to as Crianza should be kept in oak barrels at least for 12 months and they may not be sold if they are kept for less than 3 years. If this period is shorter that the stated period, the wine is called as semi-crianza.

Cru Bourgeois:

The well-known classification dated 1855 has classified the castles in Medoc Region but it was a classification excluded thousands of castles. Bordeaux Chamber of Trade has made a new classification covering 444 castles for the best ones of these castles in 1932. Accordingly, the best first 6 castles have been defined as cru bourgeois suprieurs exceptionnel, secondary 99 castles have been defined as cru bourgeois suprieurs and other 339 castles have been defined as "cru bourgeois". Then, all castles included in this classification have been referred to as "cru bourgeois". The list has been updated in 1966 and 78.

Cru Classe:

A term used for classified regions. Essentially, it expresses five categories defined in Medoc wines classification dated 1855. It involves classification of Medoc region vineyards and wines as primary, secondary fifth products (premiers, deuxiemes... cinquiemes crus) by Gironde Chamber of Commerce.

Cuve:

Large tank used for fermentation and blending.